Frank Stella “Harran II” 1967 Source Date: 28/09/15

I feel this piece of art have a very strong, bold geometric structure which makes the image very eye catching. Frank Stella has used a lot of bright bold colours to capture the sharp and crisp lines in this piece. He has also used lots of white space in this image which makes it look minimalistic. The use of overlapping is quite strong and quite a defining feature of this piece as the squares overlap the circles and some of the circles overlap some of the other shapes. Stella’s work is very bold and dynamic with many of his pieces involving repetitive patterns or shapes.

This type of art is called Minimalism which is a style of art that involves the use of very minimal shapes and very simple lines. Minimalism arose in the 1950s and has been popular ever since.

The composition of “Harran II” is very structured and defined. It uses space in a very interesting way since almost half of the canvas is blank which in my opinion draws more of the focus onto the shapes in the centre of the canvas.


Barnett Newman “Voice of Fire” 1967 Source Date: 28/09/15

This piece is far more simplistic than “Harran II” since it only consists of two different colours and a single strip of red going down the centre. There is also a very high level of contrast in this image because the colours red and blue are complete opposites on the colour spectrum.

Lots of Barnett’s work involves one or two vertical lines going down the canvas in some sort of way which creates a very iconic piece of artwork and gives his work a very defining feature.


Carl Andre “144 Graphite Silence” 2005 Source Date: 29/09/15

Carl Andre does lots of work using bricks and arranges them in interesting ways. In this piece he has arranged them in to a large square shape with even spaces between all of the individual cubes. This gives a sense of order and symmetry in the composition. There are many patterns that can be seen in this some what simple design because of the shadows of the cubes meet up in interesting ways.

This is minimalism because it only involves one type of shape and the design is very simplistic.

This piece is a very good example of use of perspective because it seems as if the cubes get smaller and closer together the further they go back compared to the cubes in the foreground.



Georges Braque “Port en Normandie” 1909 Source Date: 29/09/15

Cubism is an movement in the early 20th century in which perspective with a single viewpoint was abandoned and use was made of simple geometric shapes and interlocking planes.

Braque uses a lot of geometric shapes in this piece to make more complex shapes while still keeping the image slightly obscured. I feel he has done a good job on this composition since he has made the port look very abstract and obtuse yet you are still able to make out what the image is. The sharp edges of the water show the waves are very rough.


Pablo Picasso “Girl with a Mandolin” 1910 Source Date: 05/10/15

Picasso is known more for his work in Post Impressionism however he has made a few pieces in the Cubism movement, this is one of those pieces. You can see in this image that many different points of perspective have been used and combined to make the structure of the girl with a mandolin. The range of colours used in this piece are very similar to those in other works of Cubism, yellows, greys and black for example.

I like the style of Cubism and this piece in particular because the composition looks almost broken down or de-constructed. This gives the image a very abstract view on the human form.


Juan Gris “Bottles and Knife” 1912 Source Date: 05/10/15

This piece is an interesting take of a still life but in the Cubism style. The composition almost looks like it has been sliced up and offset slightly which may be intentional seeing as the image is called “Bottles and Knife”. Like the other two examples of Cubism, this piece also a similar colour scheme. This composition has also got multiple perspective like Picasso’s piece.

Pop Art


Andy Warhol “Campbell’s Soup Cans” 1962 Source Date 05/10/15

Pop Art is an art movement that emerged in the mid-1950s in Britain and in the late 1950s in the United States. It presented a challenge to traditions of fine art by including images from popular culture such as advertising and news.

“Campbell’s Soup Cans” was an iconic piece in the Pop Art movement. It uses bright contrasting colours, solid lines and bold text to make a eye catching image. I like this piece of pop art because it very eye catching and uses negative space well to centre the image and make the audience’s view go straight to the product. Warhol uses prints to create these solid colours and lines.


Jasper Johns “Three Flags” 1958 Source Date: 05/10/15

 In this piece takes an iconic image, the flag of the United States of America and puts them inside each other. This is an example of progressive rhythm which draws you attention into the centre of the piece. Unlike Warhol’s work Jasper has painted the three flags instead of screen printing them. Although the lines aren’t as strong as Warhol’s work, it is still an example of Pop Art.


Roy Lichtenstein “In the Car” 1963 Source Date: 05/10/15

This piece looks rather like something out of a comic book but it still has a Pop Art style with its bold colours and solid lines. It also has horizontal lines coming of the people to show there is some motion in the picture as they are driving in the car. Lots of curved lines are used to show the strands of hair but Roy has not used too many which would make it look realistic so he has kept to the comic style of Pop Art.

Art Deco


Louis Comfort Tiffany “Lamp” Source Date: 05/11/15

This piece is very interesting because it is in the form of a lamp unlike most of the other pieces of art I have researched which have been paintings or sculptures. It looks like the lamp contains lots of different shaped petals made from stained glass. Each of these segments of glass have been surrounded by lead to connect them to each other which creates a black border around each segment, this is a recurring theme in art deco.

 Art Deco is an influential visual arts design style that first appeared in France just before World War I and began to spread internationally in the 1920s to 1940s before its popularity fell after World War II.

mack rose glass

Charles Rennie Mackintosh “Stained Glass Window from The Hill House” Source Date: 05/11/15

 This piece like the first is also stained glass much like most pieces of art deco work. This piece incorporates a lot of flowing and curved lines to create the composition. The background is a very pale colour which adds great contrast with the rose and makes it stand out more in the composition.


Josef Hoffmann Source Date: 05/11/15

Josef’s work is very different to the previous two because it isn’t focused on stained glass, his work is focused more around chairs. This chair has a perfect line of symmetry down the centre. The chair also includes some geometric shapes such as circles. The red seat cushion has great contrast with the rest of the chair and this makes the feature very eye catching.



Vincent Van Gogh “Starry Night” 1889 Source Date: 16/11/15

This is an iconic piece in the Post-Impressionism movement by Vincent Van Gogh. He has created surreal flowing patterns in the sky to signify how the clouds are blown in the wind. In a lot of his work he uses lots of bright colours and this is a key feature in the movement. Van Gogh has used light and lighting a lot in this piece as you can clearly see some sort of aura coming from the stars and the moon.

Post-Impressionism includes a wide range of distinct artistic styles that all share the common motivation of responding to the Impressionist movement. The key ideas include symbolic and higher personal meanings, dominant structure, order and the optical effects of colour and abstract form and pattern.


Georges Seurat “A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte” 1886 Source Date:16/11/15

This picture is very different to Van Gogh’s but it is still part of the Post-Impressionism movement. This picture almost looks like its has slightly been digitally blurred but it is merely the technique used to paint it. This composition includes a lot of bright colours and smooth lines. This is one of the similarities with the first piece. I’m not such a fan of this piece because I feel it looks a bit plain and there are too many points of focus.


Paul Cézanne Source Date: 16/11/15

I feel this piece is rather basic compared to the previous two but that may have been a design choice so I’m not sure if it’s fair to judge it in that way. The colours are smudged together so you can barely make out the difference between each piece of scenery, however, I do like the look of the mountain or hill in the background because there is a lot of contrast between that and the rest of the painting.



Umberto Boccioni “Charge of the Lancers” 1915 Source Date: 17/11/15

This piece is part of the Futurism movement. This composition shows men riding horses with lances into battle. The main themes of Futurism are power and speed. The horses represent power and force in the image and the speed is shown by the dust being kicked up from the ground. The legs of the horses almost look as if they are trying to be animated but this picture is from an era before modern animation.

Futurism is an Italian avant-garde art movement that took speed, technology and modernity as its inspiration, Futurism portrayed the dynamic character of 20th century life, glorified war and the machine age, and favoured the growth of Fascism.


Giacomo Balla “Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash” 1912 Source Date: 17/11/15

This composition is more based around speed. As you can see all the moving parts of the dog and the dog walker are blurred and look like they are part of a walk or run cycle. The blurring on these limbs give the impression that the dog is moving at high speed. Dogs are usually symbolised as powerful animals so the dog could signify power in the composition.

German Expressionism


Ernst Barlach “The First Day” 1922 Source Date: 23/11/15

In this image it shows the creation of light with the man in the composition being God. Barlach was known to be mystic so Christianity and God were common themes in his work. This style of woodcut looks very similar to line art except there are large areas that have been shaded solid black.

German Expressionism refers to a number of creative movements beginning in Germany before the First World War that reached a peak in Berlin during the 1920s.


Still form the 1920 film “The Cabinet of Dr Caligari” Source Date: 23/11/15

This still from a film almost looks as if it has also taken inspiration from Surrealism with it’s slanted buildings and unrealistic lights. Like the first image this is also grayscale which is expected since colour film had not been invented in the 1920s. I like the look this still because it is very intriguing and odd, for example the way the light hits the ground in an almost star like pattern.


Käthe Kollwitz “The Parents” 1923 Source Date: 23/11/15

This composition shows the struggle parents had to face after losing their loved ones in the First World War. Kollwitz was moved after seeing some of Ernst Barlach’s woodcuts so decided to make some of her own depicting the tragedies of the War. The very rough nature of the lines in the woodcut help express the sorrow going through these two figures.



Vladimir Mayakovsky “Agitprop Poster Titled: Want it? Join” Source Date: 23/11/15

The text in the poster reads “1. You want to overcome cold? 2. You want to overcome hunger? 3. You want to eat? 4. You want to drink? Hasten to join shock brigades of exemplary labor!” An Agitprop poster is a form of propaganda used in 1920s Russia. They have used the colour red because red signifies Communism, also red is a very eye catching colour so it would attract attention to passers by when they saw the poster.

Constructivism was an artistic and architectural philosophy that originated in Russia beginning in 1919 and was a rejection of the idea of autonomous art. The art was mainly used for Communist propaganda.


El Lissitzky “Beat the Whites with a Red Wedge” 1919 Source Date:23/11/15

This was one of Lissitzky’s first attempts at propaganda art. The white circle represents the anti-Communist White Army and the red wedge represents the Red Army piercing their defences. I like the level on contrast between the colours of this composition since the red, white and black have a lot of contrast between each other. I also like the symbolism in the piece.


Vladimir Tatlin “Monument to the Third International” 1920 Source Date:23/11/15

This tower also known as “Tatlin Tower” was Vladimir Tatlin’s most famous work. It was going to be the central hub for functional conference spaces and a propaganda centre for the Communist party. This tower symbolized industry, technology and the machine age in Russia.

Conceptual Art


Joseph Beuys “Fat Chair” 1985 Source Date: 26/11/15

This is Beuys piece called “Fat Chair” given the name because the is a large wedge of animal fat on the chair. The animal fat is supposed to represent human life since humans are made up of a lot of fat. I feel this is an interesting depiction on human life because it is only representing us as a compound we are made of and has not been sculpted in any way to look like a human. I also like that this composition would change over time as the fat been to decay which means people viewed a different art piece every time the viewed it.

Conceptual art or Conceptualism is art in which the concepts or ideas involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns.


Sol Lewitt “Standing Open Structure Black” 1964 Source Date: 26/11/15

This piece of work reminds me a lot of the art movement Minimalism since the piece isn’t that complex and has very basic lines and form. I like the very bold nature of the beams in this sculpture and it looks like it would be a very rigid object.


Joseph Beuys “Homogenous Infiltration for Grand Piano” 1966 Source Date: 26/11/15

In this piece Joseph has wrapped a grand piano in grey felt. This felt is supposed to be some sort of bandage for the piano which makes it seem like the piano needs some kind of aid or help. The felt mutes the sound of the piano so it makes a completely different sound and this is supposed to make it less grand.



Salvador Dali “The Persistance of Memory” 1931 Source Date: 26/11/15

This is one of the most iconic pieces of art in the Surrealism movement. The clocks in the image depict mortality and how time is slowly melting away. Salvador Dali also had a fascination with ants and flies to signify decay of life. I like this picture because it is very peculiar and the meaning can be different for lots of different people.

Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s and is best know for its visual artworks and writings. The aim was to resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream and reality.”


Max Ernst “Celebes” 1921 Source Date: 26/11/15

The object in the centre is some sort of mechanical elephant-like being. This elephant thing was based on a photograph of a Sudanese bin for storing corn. I don’t really understand what the composition represents but I still find it interesting to look at, for example, why is there a headless women in the foreground. This picture has a very surreal feel to it because it is an imaginary and dream inspired image.


Joan Miro “The Farm” 1921 Source Date: 26/11/15

In this composition there elements from different movements such as Cubism and Primitivism. This is painting of the farm that Joan lived on for most of his life and spent 9 months painting. I like the deep orange and red colours in this painting which almost give it an Aboriginal feel to it.

Young British Artists (YBA)


Damien Hurst “The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living” 1991 Source Date: 27/11/15

This is one of the most well known pieces of art in the Young British Artists movement by Britain’s wealthiest artist, Damien Hurst. The sculpture is a tiger shark that is suspended in a formaldehyde solution. This piece shows that we don’t understand death until we are dead ourselves. I like this composition because it is very bold and striking.

 The Young British Artists movement is the name given to a loose group of visual artists who began to exhibit together in London in 1988. Many of the artists graduated from the BA Fine Art course at Goldsmiths, in the late 1980s.


Sarah Lucas “Au Naturel” 1994 Source Date: 27/11/15

I believe this piece represents a man and a women lying in bed together with their genitalia represented as objects. The title “Au Naturel” implies that this is just the bare bones of gender by just showing the genitals of the body. I find the way Sarah has depicted relationships is quite humorous.

Mausoleum Under Construction 1992 by Rachel Whiteread born 1963

Rachel Whiteread “Mausoleum Under Construction” 1992 Source Date: 27/11/15

This piece is fairly different compared to the previous two, it isn’t as interesting or as striking as the others, it just seems eerily empty. There is a good amount of symmetry in this composition but there isn’t very much contrast. I don’t really like this image because I feel it’s a bit boring.



Francis Picabia “Portrait de Mistinguett” 1907 Source Date: 27/11/15

The range of colours used in this piece are mainly beige and white and a few places of vibrant colour like the hat for example. I don’t find this painting very interesting because it just looks like a women wearing a hat and I can’t seem to work out any deeper meaning to the painting.

Dada was an artistic and literary movement that began in 1916 in Zurich, Switzerland. It was a reaction to World War I, and the nationalism and rationalism which many thought had brought war about.

Fountain 1917, replica 1964 by Marcel Duchamp 1887-1968

Marcel Duchamp “Fountain” 1917 Source Date: 27/11/15

This piece was one of the most influential artworks of the 20th century. Although it is just a ceramic urinal on its side, it was actually just an elaborate prank poking fun at American avant-garde art. I find this funny because it just goes to show that anything can be art.

Violin d'Ingres

Man Ray “Le Violin d’Ingres (The Violin of Ingres)” 1924 Source Date: 27/11/15

This is an interesting piece depicting a women’s body as a violin as the curves of her back follow those of a violin. This picture almost looks as if the F-holes have been Photoshopped in but they have actually been painted on.

The History of Interactive Design

What is the Visual Future of Interactive Design?

Interactive Artwork

Scott Snibbe


Scott Snibbe Source Date: 12/06/16

“Scott Snibbe is a pioneer in interactive art, interactive music, digital video, and gestural user interfaces.” (Scott Snibbe – Interactive art, 2016)

Boundary Functions (1998)


Boundary Functions Source Date: 12/06/16

Personal space is considered to be an imaginary concept but Snibbe wanted to make to express it visually. “By projecting the diagram, the invisible relationships between individuals and the space between them become visible and dynamic.” (Scott Snibbe – Interactive art, 2016). Snibbe’s creation could be considered a blank slate when the platform is empty but it requires human interaction for the artwork to come to life. Two people need to be standing on the square at once for the line to appear between them. “In this way Boundary Functions is a reversal of the lonely self-reflection of virtual reality, or the frustration of virtual communities: here is a virtual space that can only exist with more than one person, in physical space.” (Scott Snibbe – Interactive art, 2016).

Blow Up (2005)


Blow Up Source Date: 12/01/16

Blow Up is a piece that scales up a breath into the small fans and projects that breath via the larger fans in the room. With this piece Snibbe wanted to discover what separates a breath from the rest of the air, “Yet what distinguishes ”my breath“ from mere air and, further, what distinguishes my breath from me?” (Scott Snibbe – Interactive art, 2016).

In Scott’s work he seems to take a simple interaction, whether that be a breath or just a step, and then manipulates it to create some thing else whilst keeping the process very simple and easy to understand visually. He also seems to use the principle of cause and effect in his pieces.

rAndom International
Rain Room

Rain Room is an environment of falling water through which it is possible to walk, trusting that a path can be navigated, without being drenched in the process.” (International, 2016).

I’m starting to see some trends in the way most interactive art installations are created, they seem to be fairly dull or lifeless without human interaction but when people interact with them they seem to come to life and react with the user. This could be something I consider using when making my interactive piece. I really like the idea of this installation because it takes the concept of rain and reverses it.


The aims of this installation was to redefine the meaning behind the word “pixel”, as the artist says “‘Mirrors” aims to re-interpret the meaning of the word ‘pixel’.  Rather than taking the form of a tight grid, typical  for  the flat, orderly display of information, each individual ‘pixel’ has been given the distinct freedom and ability to move around in a three dimensional space, at its own discretion.” (International, 2016). When I first looked at this piece I thought the mirrors moved in a motion similar to that of a wave or flowing water and that the mirrors represent the reflection of that surface.

What It Isn’t


What It Isn’t, 2014 Source Date: 19/06/16

This installation is a set of hanging vibration motors that are triggered by the users movement that makes the entire installation rattle. The artist says that “Sound is one of our most effective ways of sending and processing signals. By generating sound in response to movement What It Isn’t generates life around viewers.” (International, 2016). This shows that interactive art doesn’t always have to be visual but instead it could rely on one of the different senses such as sound, touch or even smell (I’m not too sure how I would apply smell to my piece but it could be something I consider).

  1. Scott Snibbe – Interactive art. (2016). Bio. [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Jun. 2016].
  2. Scott Snibbe – Interactive art. (2016). Digital Art. [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Jun. 2016].
  3. Scott Snibbe – Interactive art. (2016). Digital Art. [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Jun. 2016].
  4. International, r. (2016). Random International » Rain Room. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 Jun. 2016].
  5. International, r. (2016). Random International » Mirrors. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 Jun. 2016].
  6. International, r. (2016). Random International » What It Isn’t. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 Jun. 2016].


For this brief I think I will be making some sort of drawing experience probably using the software Processing because I have a decent amount of knowledge in using the the software.

Producing Outcome

So I started working on my idea for a drawing experience.


After a few prompts online I found a basic way of creating a basic drawing system now I need to start adding some more interesting features to my idea. The lines of code I used are shown above.

After some experimenting with trying to manipulate the x and y values of the drawing system so I think I will be changing this and try something different.


So I’ve decided to take a different approach to this task. Instead of a drawing game I will be making a game that shows how people are repel from each other, the people being different shapes.


Here is the code used to make the blue square move in four directions.




I decided to surround the square with eight circles so that it formed a grid like pattern. This pattern represents the order in society and much like the other pieces of interactive art I studied it means nothing until it is interacted with. When the player starts moving the blue square around you notice that the orange circles repel from the square when they get within a certain proximity. I feel this feature represents how certain people can be isolated just because they are different, in this case that would be the blue square being different from the orange circles.

Here is the Processing file

The controls are using “wasd”.


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